Viluppuram District lies between 11 38' 25" N and 12 20' 44" S: 78 15' 00" W and 79 42' 55" E with an area of 7222.03 Hec. It was carved out from the South Arcot District on 30.09.1993 and was rehristened as Viluppuram District. The residual part of the erstwhile South Arcot district was named as Cuddalore District.
It is surrounded on East and South by Cuddalore District. The West by Salem and Dharmapuri District and on the North by Thiruvannamalai and Kanchipuram District.
School education facilities are available in this district through 1777 primary schools ( including nursery schools) 311 Middle schools, 150 High Schools, 100 Higher Sechoondary Schools. Regarding higher education Arts Colleges, engineering Colleges, Poly-Techniques, Industrial Training Institute and Teacher Training Institutes are available in this district. The Government has run hostels for boys and girls for SC., ST., MBC and Backward classes.
The Literacy rate of Viluppuram District is 64.7% Compared to the State figure of 73.47% in the year 2001.
The chief food crops of Viluppuram district are paddy, Cholam, Ragi, Cumbu, Redgram. Blackgram, Horsegram and Varage. The chief cash crops are Sugarcane, Groundnut, Cotton, Casurina and Coconut.
In Viluppuram District 21 Hospitals are functioning to look after the Health and Family welfare of the people. Out of this 10 Hospitals come under allopathy, 9 under Siddha and 2 under Homeopathy, with staff strength of 140 Doctors, 149 Nurses and 279 Technical persons. The Network also includes 2 Allopathy dispensaries, 1 Siddha dispensary, 80 Primary health centres and 557 Health sub-centres. One mobile medical team fulfils the medical need of the people of Kalvarayan Hills.
The rivers in the district are not perennial. The Pennaiyar is the principal river and the other important rivers are Komugi, Manimuktha, Kedilam, Malattar, Sankaraparani and Varaganathi. The major source of irrigation are by tube wells and open dugwells. The river irrigation account for less than 4.3% of total irrigated area. The district largely depend on ground water, lakes and tanks for irrigation.
Viluppuram district is developing in the industrial sector. The Sugar industry is the major industry in the district. There are 4 sugar factories at Mundiyampakkam, Periasevalai, Kacharapalliyam, Mungailthuraipattu. In the area of small schale industries there are 67 Rice mills, 17 Sago factories 5 Rice bran oil extracting units and 8 Cotton Ginning Mills. Besides this mineral water, ceramics, automobile workshop are also running in the district.
Major minerals produced, in the district includes Black granite, Blue metals, River sand etc. There is no Industrial estate in the district and when compared to the population the industrial establishments are quite inadequate to meet out the job requirement of the educated youth.
Fortification Walls : The massive fortification walls of Gingee interconnect the three inaccessible hills-krishnaglri, chakkilidrug and Rajagiri. The three hills are disported in the form of triangle, while the main wall connecting them is 20 meters thick. The tops of the three hills form impregnable citadels, while the inner fort contains many fortifications and gates. The Rajagiri citadel is the highest, about 800 ft. in height, and the most inaccessible. The 20 meters deep chasm is now connected by a bridge.
Kalyana Mahal: Built in the indo-Islamic style, the kalyana Mahal is one of the most attractive ruins in the fort. It consists of a square court, surrounded by rooms for the ladies of the Governors household. In the middle of this court, is a 27 meter high square tower, built of stone. The tower has a pyramidal roof. The rooms in this tower are very similar to other Vijayanagar Nayaka buildings elsewhere.
Venugopala swamy Temple : Located to the west of the inner gate of the lower citadel, the temple contains a remarkable sculpture depicting Lord krishna playing on the flute with is two consorts. Another interesting feature in this temple is a finely polished, broadsmooth slab found in front of the temple
WOODEN BRIDGE TOP OF RAJAGIRI FORT
WATCH TOWER - TOP OF THE RAJAGIRI FORT
The Ponds: The way to the Hanuman Temple, outside the lower fort, abounds in temple ponds and many impressive structures. Chakkarakulam and chettikulam are the two famous ponds in this fort.Chettikulam was built by Raja shetty during the Maratha occupation of the place, towards the end of the 18th century. To the north of this pond is a platform believed to be Raja Desingh funeral pyre, where his young wife committed sati.
The famous Ranganatha temple. Built in typical Indo-Islamic style, the Audience hall is a damaged roof supported by a series of graceful little pointed arches. The Magazine building is also a noteworthy structure. Built in typical Vijayanagar style, is the famous Rangantha Temple. To the south of the watch-tower, is a big iron cannon, roughly 4 meters long, and 2 meters in circumference. In style and form, this cannon is very similar to the Malik-1-Maidan of Bijapur.
SAT-AT - ULLAH KHAN MOSQUE
Sad – at – Ullah Khan Mosque : This mosque was erected by sad – at – Ullah khah to commemorate his victory over De singh and the capture of the fort in 1713 A. D . it is located at the entrance of the inner fort of Rajagiri. According to a Persian inscription found here, the mosque is said to have been constructed in 1717 –1718 A. D
Kamalakkanni Amman Temple : This small shrine dedicated to Kamalakkani Amman (Goddess Durga), a local delty, is found on the way to the citadel on Rajagiri Hill. It contains a sacrificial altar and well-preserved mural paintings belonging to the Nayak period.
NANDIESWARAR - THIRUVAMATHUR TEMPLE
Thiruvaamathoor : An ancient Chola temple. Dedicated to lord Sri Abiramaeshwarar is found here. 1500 years old temple . As the temple seems to have changed many hands Times between. Rajaraja Chola I (AD 985-1012) and Seerangadeva Maharayar. (1584.AD) The Amman Named Muththambigai.
Thumpoor : The Temple of lord Nagamman. This temple is 1450 years old
Esalam : Built by Rajendra Cholan I (1012) lord sri Ramanatha Eswarar. The legend found in Sanskrit language and in grantha character. Written on the periphery of the seal is as follows, Rajad-Rajanya Makuta sreni-ratnesu sasanam Etad Rajendra Cholasya parakesari varmanah.
BRAMMA - ESALAM
shrine dedicated to kamalakkani Amman (Goddess Durga), a local deity, is found on the way to the citadel on Rajagiri Hill. It contains a sacrificial altar and well – preserved murul paintings belonging to the Nayak period.
Narasimma Swamy Koil - Ennairam
Ennairam :The Chola temple of Narasimma swamy koil Built by Rajaraja Chola 1(985 –1014). 8,000 samanaras were lived in this village. Another temple Narchimma Perumal Koil found here.
Thalavanur: Shatru Malleswaralayam – Rock cut temple built by the pallava King Mahendra Varman (B.C.580 to 630). Sculptures and Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions are found here.
Pachchaiamman Temple :T his was worshipped by special chittars. 7 Jadamuni shapes are very big pachaimalai is in the back side. Medicine plants are there. This medicine are can’t find Even in the kollimalai. Purathana temple is on the top, no statue on there. We can see the Thiruvannamalai tower standing in the half of the this mountain very clear.
FULL VIEW OF THE PATTABIRAMAR TEMPLE (1540-1550)
PATTABIRAMAR TEMPLE - UNJAL MANDAPAM
24 Theerthangarargul : It is 2 kms north of Gingee town. The hillock on the western side of the road has two jaina caverns and a huge boulder containing sculptures of all the 24 Theerthankaras 9th Century style. It is only place where all the 24 Theerthankaras are shown in a single large composition. A open rock nearby was the place where monk Chandranandi observed 57 days of fasting and died (5th- 6th century A.D) Another monk Ilayabhattara observed 30 days of fasting and died in the Century A.D. The pathway leading to the caves at the ground level has an image of Adinatha and at the top of a figure of Mahavira.
Angala Parameswari - Melmalayanur
Melmalayanur: The temple of Angala Parameswari is 32 kms from Gingee, the special deity of the Sembadavars. Here festival occurs in February-March. A special feature of this festival is the Simimasana kollai. The people who attend the festival cook large quantities of grain of various kinds and set them out in the burning ground and offer them to goddess who is brought there. Every Ammavasai (New Moon day) there will be the Lakhs of devotees throng here. situated here. In the inner sanctum there is a snake pit which is being worshipped. There is a congregation of devotees on every new moon day